The contamination of soil, water, atmosphere by the harmful substances like ash, dust and other particles is called Pollution. Pollution is the main cause for the health disorders in the people, mostly in the metropolitan cities. There were many sources of pollution like automobiles, water bodies etc., many of the scientists suggests that breathing polluted air for a long time can lead to sickness

Pollution is very harmful to our health. It causes many health disorders. Recent studies are saying that it was the main reason for the lung cancer. The results suggest that exposure to air pollution can raise the risk of becoming extremely overweight which is also called as obesity. It agrees with many other studies that air pollution  affects the  metabolism of the body.

Another study found that when pregnant mice were exposed to exhaust from diesel engines, their pups grew up to be heavier  and face illness. The pups also developed more inflammation in their brains. Pollution also increases signs of inflammation in the lungs, blood and fat. Researchers says that it might be possible to create medicines that reverse the negative health effects of air pollution, but these medicines will take time to develop.


Carbon Dioxide to Usable Fuel

Carbon dioxide is a gas which has no color, odour and incombustible. It is a chemical compound consisting of one carbon atom and two oxygen atoms and its molecular formula is given by CO2. The other names for CO2 are “carbonic anhydride and carbonic-acid gas”. Being the naturally occurring gas, some of the other sources of CO2 are as follows:

  • Exhalation
  • Combustion of coal, coke and natural gas
  • Fermentation of carbohydrates
  • Reaction of acid with limestone or with other carbonates
  • Carbonated beverages
  • Extinguishers
  • Various industries

CO2 is very harmful to the atmosphere and it is one of the green house gases which are responsible for the green house effect in the atmosphere. It is harmful to the living beings if there is rise in the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere. After the many researches held by the scientists, they finally founded a way to decreases the levels of CO2 in the atmosphere. They are converting the CO2 into the usable fuel such as “methanol”. As the CO2 is chemically unreactive it is first converted into carbon monoxide (CO) and then to methanol. The process of converting CO2 into CO is carried out in three steps as follows:

  • Firstly, the photons (the packets of light) are converted into negatively charged particles called electrons and the positively charged particles called holes will be separated from each other.
  • Secondly, the holes formed in the first step get reacted with the water molecules results in producing protons and oxygen molecules.
  • Thirdly, the electrons, protons and oxygen molecules formed in the above steps will be reacted together forming carbon monoxide (CO).

Finally this CO is converted into methanol using a catalyst called “tungsten diselenide”. This process is carried out by the artificial leaf invented by the scientists.


ANESTHESIA is a condition of being in unconscious state temporarily. It is used for controlling the pain of an individual during the surgery or any typical treatments. It is also used to control the blood pressure, heavy breathing, flow of blood and heart beat. It is given in the form of injections, medicines, nasal sprays etc., and it is a temporary condition of the body which lasts for few minutes or hours. There are three types of anesthesia such as General Anesthesia, Local Anesthesia and Conscious Sedation.

Scientists started research to know how anesthesia is dragging out the consciousness of the body. But they do not know what exactly is going on so they introduced some electrodes into the scalp of the monkey which records the activity of the brain using EEG’s (electroencephalograms). This experiment provided various clues on how the brain loses and gains the consciousness.

Brain and Nerve cells are responsible for the unconscious state of individual because of intake of Anesthesia, so the scientists put the electrodes on the scalp of monkey to know the functioning of its brain. There will be two interconnected brain networks consisting of nerve cells in which one network deals with incoming sensory information and the other gives different kinds of information. They found that before the anesthesia was given the activities in the two networks is same but when the anesthesia is given the networks were dropped out and the individual obtains the state of unconsciousness.

Artificial Leg Technology

The physically challenged persons are one of the excluded sections of the society and also they face many problems in their daily life. They face many difficulties in doing their own work. Especially the people with one leg or no legs face many challenges that they could not even  walk by their own.

In the earlier days itself to overcome the difficulties faced by these people japan researchers invented the artificial legs made of plastic and other fabrics. These japan manufactured legs made the life of these handicapped people easier but the major defect in these are the manufactures face difficulty to take dimensions of the victim’s leg and preparing it with the accurate dimensions. These artificial legs makes injuries to the victim too. So, in order to overcome these difficulties many researches were put forward by many researchers and now they invented a new technology called artificial leg technology.

The artificial leg technology involves the usage of 3D scanning technology. The new process uses mobile 3D scanning technologies to accurately capture and transmit 3D models of the residual limb, to design comfortable transformal sockets. This technology is used to fabricate plastic models of residual limbs to support the socket manufacturing process. The scanner allows the technicians to quickly and accurately measure residual limb dimensions. The scanned data will be beamed to the cloud, and downloaded by manufacturing center to design and manufacture perfectly  fitting prostheses.


Artificial Hearing

Artificial hearing is a technology which helps a deaf person to hear the noise, speech etc., It was put forward to overcome the difficulties faced by the deaf person and moreover it’s also difficult for an ordinary person for conveying the information to the deaf. This technology was first developed in 1970’s and this came to usage around 1980’s. Nowadays nearly 300,000 people were using this technology all over the world.

Artificial hearing is a technology dumped in a machine called artificial hearing machine. The main principle behind this machine is that it converts the sound signals into electrical signals. These electrical signals directly sent to the brain through the auditory nerve and after the arrival of the signal, the person then understands or hears the speech, noise.

But the implants don’t fully restore hearing-unable to understand the speech clearly but they enable processing of human speech. Researches were going on to restore the hearing of the deaf completely by replacing the electrical signals with the LASER (light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation) and LED (light emitting diode) to increase the range of frequencies so that the implants can hear and reproduce sound accurately.


ANTIBIOTICS are used to treat or prevent some types of bacterial infection. They work by killing bacteria or preventing them from reproducing and spreading. Antibiotics aren’t effective against viral infections such as the common cold, flu, most coughs and sore throats.

Antibiotics are used to treat bacterial infections that

  • Are unlikely to clear up without antibiotics
  • Could infect others unless treated
  • Could take too long to clear without treatment
  • Carry a risk of more serious complications

There are hundreds of different types of antibiotics, but most of them can be broadly classified into six groups such as:

  • Penicillin’s
  • Cephalosporin’s
  • Aminoglycosides
  • Tetracycline’s
  • Macrolides
  • Fluoroquinolones

Both the NHS and health organizations across the world are trying to reduce the use of antibiotics as they cause many side effects to the patients. Over usage of antibiotics causes GONORRHEA. This untreatable gonorrhea not only causes pain but also has been linked to pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, tubal infertility, and neonatal eye infections, among other conditions. Therefore the antibiotics are to be taken in a limited dose to overcome the side effects caused by it.


ALOPECIA UNIVERSALIS is a condition which involves the complete loss of hair on the scalp of the body. This is an advanced form of ALOPECIA AREATA, which is also a condition that causes round patches of hair loss. Mystery is that the exact cause of this disease is still unknown but it is assumed that it is because of auto immune condition (the hair follicles of the person are attacked by immune system).

It may be caused by the environmental influences and genetic predisposition. A study on AU proved that approximately 20% of AU affected people have a family member with alopecia and finally gave statement that genetic are major responsible for the development of this disease. The symptoms of this disease includes burning sensation, itching, thyroid disorders, nail changes, anxiety, personality disorders, depression and paranoid disorders.

Earlier there was no medicine for this disease but now recently a new drug was put forward by the scientists which cure this disease. An FDA-approved drug called “TOFACITINIB CITRATE” is used to cure AU. This is successful in treating the individuals with psoriasis. Taking this drug 10mg daily shows some improvement and the individual had grown facial and scalp hair and after few days the dosage will be increased, by eight months there will be improved hair growth.