ELECTRICAL STIMULATION WITH AN ELECTRODE TO TREAT NEUROLOGICAL DISORDERS

ELECTRICAL STIMULATION WITH AN ELECTRODE TO TREAT NEUROLOGICAL DISORDERS

Many diseases as well as brain disorders will be treated with electrical stimulation using an electrode constituted within the brain. However, the electrodes will turn out scarring, that diminishes their effectiveness and may necessitate further surgeries to interchange them. MIT researchers have currently incontestable that manufacturing these electrodes abundant smaller will primarily eliminate this scarring, probably permitting the devices to stay within the brain for much longer

“What the researchers doing is altering the dimensions and creating the procedure less invasive,” says archangel Cima, a member of MIT’s Robert Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer. Researchers were designing brain implants that records brain activity or deliver medicine to terribly targeted locations.

Many brain disease patients have benefited from treatment with low-frequency electrical current delivered to a locality of the brain concerned in movement management. The electrodes used for this deep brain stimulation is a couple of millimeters in diameter. Once being constituted, they bit by bit generate connective tissue through the constant rubbing of the conductor against the encircling brain tissue. This method, referred to as “Gliosis”, contributes to the high failure rate of such devices.

Previous studies have urged that making the implants smaller or softer might cut back the quantity of scarring, therefore the university team kicked off to reduce the consequences of each by decreasing the dimensions of the implants and coating them with a soft synthetic resin glycol (PEG) gel.

PARADIGM CELL WHICH PURIFIES AIR AND PRODUCE POWER

PARADIGM CELL WHICH PURIFIES AIR AND PRODUCE POWER

A small innovation might have a giant impact on pollution. In Belgium, researchers have designed a tool that uses daylight to purify contaminated air and generate hydrogen gas which will be hold on and used for generating power.

Researchers are worked in two teams for years, one on the process of purification and other on producing hydrogen gas. At the University of Urban Center, the scientists had been testing other ways of merging sunlight with nanomaterials for the purification of air. At the University of Leuven, another team had been performing on a small electric cell with a membrane that might generate hydrogen gas from water. Now, these two groups have incorporated their experience to form this latest device that might purify polluted air and generate energy at a similar time.

The researchers are working on the air contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs), molecules which are small in size produced from various chemicals used in furnishings, machines, cleansing fluids, upholstery and adhesives. These compounds in decent concentrations, causes severe eye irritation, headaches, nausea, dizziness and respiratory disorders. The small molecules may be found within the air of buildings that aren’t well-ventilated which will result will result in a sickness known as the “Sick Building Syndrome”.

The paradigm cell could be a in a square shape with an energetic space that measures regarding 1 cm by one cm. At one aspect of the device, a tube delivers contaminated air into the cell.  Sunlight enters through a clear window that covers a film coated with a light-activated catalyst. Once contaminated air and sunlight meet at the film, the catalyst tears apart the little organic molecules that produce protons which are collected on the other side of the film. The platinum catalyst placed on the film converts these protons to hydrogen gas. In the intervening time the purified air will be sent out through the other tube.

Researchers were able to purify the contaminated air and produce gas from a spread of organic compounds as well as fuel, grain alcohol and carboxylic acid. They were planning to start researches with aldehyde, a liquid utilized to produce carboxylic acid and perfumes.

The hydrogen gas generated can be accustomed to glow the lights or alternative machines in various industries. They were succeeded in producing the hydrogen gas but did not plan to store the gas, which will be completed in future research. Currently, the membrane responds to UV rays produced by the sun, that is merely 4% to 5% of the energy band. This would be definitely a worthy process as the paradigm cell is able to perform two processes by using the sunlight which is a renewable source of energy.

“ALCOHOLISM IN WOMEN CAUSES RISK OF BREAST CANCER” A STUDY PROVES

“ALCOHOLISM IN WOMEN CAUSES RISK OF BREAST CANCER” A STUDY PROVES

Breast cancer is the most typical cancer all over the world since many years. There may be many causes for it but intake of a single tumbler of wine or different alcoholic drinks on a daily basis will increase the risk of Ductal Carcinoma or Breast Cancer, reported by American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR) and also by the World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF).The report additionally disclosed primarily that strong exercise like running or quick cycling reduces the chance of occurrence of   pre- and post-menopausal breast cancers, also said that  moderate exercise reduces the chance of post-menopausal ductal carcinoma, the foremost common sort of carcinoma.

Women should maintain a healthy weight, diet and have to take only little alcohol (beneficiary if not at all taken) and do physical exercises to avoid the risk of breast cancers. In the past researchers started to study how weight, diet and exercise were related and how can these avoid breast cancers. On the basis of 119 case studies of breast cancer, they evaluated that physical activities, diet and weight have immense effects on breast cancer.

The research found proofs that intake of same quantity of beer or wine (10gms of alcohol) every causes the risk of pre-menopausal ductal carcinoma by 5 % and post-menopausal carcinoma risk by 9 %. Breast cancer is mostly found in the women with least physical activity and had a habit of alcoholism.

Being overweight or fat enhances the chance of occurrence of post-menopausal carcinoma, the foremost common sort of ductal carcinoma. Women with breastfeeding can decrease the cause of breast cancer.

Researchers say that non-starchy vegetables lowers risk for estrogen-receptor (ER) negative breast cancers, a less common however tougher to treat sort of tumor. Dairy farm, diets high in metallic element and foods containing carotenoids also reduces the cause of breast cancers. Carrots, apricots, spinach and kale are the foods which are high in carotenoids.

Apart from the Alcoholism, the other factors causing breast cancers are aging, family history, early menstrual period and irregular menstrual cycle. Researchers also said that “there are many factors causing breast cancers which women cannot manage”. But we just have to take some measures like exercise daily, substitute veggies like carrots, bell peppers or tossed salad with other junk foods and try to take one drink or less of alcohol, if you are habituated for it so that we may reduce the cause of breast cancers.

“ENDOSCOPIC SLEEVE GASTROPLASTY” FOR WEIGHT LOSS

Now-a-days we observe most of the people are suffering with the weight gain and its consequences. In order to overcome this difficulty people are approaching many procedures like surgeries, exercises, diet maintenance, weight loss classes etc., to reduce these difficulties of the people, researchers had introduced a procedure “ENDOSCOPIC SLEEVE GASTROPLASTY” for weight loss. This procedure reduces all the difficulties faced by the weight loss surgeries and allows the people to undergo a safe and secured procedure.

A new, nonsurgical weight-loss procedure that involves inserting a tube down a patient’s throat and stitching the abdomen is safe and effective. As this is an endoscopic and non surgical procedure it does not require any cuttings of the abdomen during the procedure that is named Endoscopic Sleeve Gastroplasty, doctors insert an extended tube down a patient’s passageway to the abdomen. Then, they sew “pleats” into the abdomen which resembles accordion. The procedure reduces the dimensions of the abdomen, so patients feel fuller very faster and so eat less. This procedure provides a good opportunity mainly for the obese people (BMI>30) and for the people who are not comfortable with the surgeries. This procedure is secure, consistent and cost-effective. After a  normal surgical weight loss procedure, patient have to be in the hospital for 3 to 4 days but in this procedure that is not required and the patient can be as usual soon after the treatment.

Apart from this endoscopic procedure, there are two old procedures for the weight loss named: laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy and laparoscopic banding which involves surgical treatments. Both of these operations involve creating tiny incisions exceedingly in person’s abdomen to permit surgeons to get into contact with stomach. In a laparoscopic sleeve surgery, surgeons cut away an oversized portion of the abdomen, creating the organ smaller and sleeve-shaped. In a laparoscopic stripe operation, surgeons wrap a band round the higher portion of the abdomen (rather than cutting the organ), so solely a smaller section of the abdomen is left to hold out its functions.

“PAPERFUGE” A BLOOD SEPERATOR

Medical workplace instrumentation typically showcases advanced at its best. Devices will perform sophisticated tasks, like separating blood into its components, quickly and simply. However these machines typically tough as they are not possible to use in poor countries or at remote field clinics. These are high-priced and hulking and mostly hopped-up by electricity. However researchers have simply disclosed an easy, inexpensive human-powered device helpful for medical diagnosis. It will separate blood into its totally different components such that even a baby can handle it as it is designed on the basis of a toy which all of us are well known from many years.

These devices are used in the medical laboratory in separating the liquid mixtures such as water and blood into their components. Based on these reports the doctor predicts the patients about his/her treatment.

The machine which is used in the present day laboratories is centrifuge, resembles a top loading washing machine. When a centrifuge spins a tubing of blood to filter its varied components, the vial is loaded in with its base inform outward. The densest components of the blood platelets and blood cells will be forced out by the rotation force. Lighter components like the fluid or plasma will be forced upwards. Then the technicians will separate these layers for test which gives the patient treatment information.

The researchers decided to replace this centrifuge with another device such as room devices like an egg beater or hand-held mixer they are examples of inexpensive centrifuge. However these tools couldn’t rotate quick enough to separate blood well. So, the researchers decided to go with whirligig.

A whirligig is totally different than a centrifuge. It spins in 2 directions instead of only one. It consists of a tiny low disk with two holes in it, almost like an outsized button. A loop of string is felt the holes. Then handles square measure placed at every end of the loop. Once the string is twisted, it stores energy. Propulsion on the handles releases that energy and causes the disk to spin speedily. If created and used properly, the whirligig can unwind and so rewind itself.

The whirligig-based centrifuge was made from paper. Therefore the researchers named it a “Paperfuge” a mash up of paper and centrifuge. The paperfuge consists of a disk giant enough to carry mini tubing which holds twenty micro liters (0.0007 ounce) of blood that amounts to about one drop. However for once spun, this whirligig by its rotations separates red blood cells from plasma in less than ninety seconds.

 

AMNIOTIC FLUID BAG FOR PREMATURE BABIES

Now-a-days, we are experiencing many premature baby births and their deaths due to the prematurity. It also causes many health issues to the babies like respiratory organ malady, spastic paralysis, vision defect and brain injury etc., this extreme immatureness is that the nation’s leading reason for fatality rate and morbidity. Surgeons and neonatologists witness the consequences of immatureness each day. And currently a groundwork team at Children’s Hospital of City of Brotherly Love has designed a system that would revolutionize look after these little and vulnerable babies.

“These infants have an insistent necessity for a bridge between the mother’s uterus and therefore the outside environment. It will be possible to design such an atmosphere for the baby to experience; we will be succeeded in decreasing these premature baby births.

Taking all these points into consideration, researchers have started their experiments with the glass incubator tank and at last developed a device. This device consists of a bag with amniotic fluid. This bag is sealed and has the sterile environment without any hazardous infections. After the birth of the premature baby, the baby is immersed in the liquid and placed in it for some weeks such that the baby experiences her mother’s womb. This device doesn’t contain any external heart pumper or ventilator as the baby’s body is not yet prepared to resist these things but contains an external oxygenator which replaces the placenta of the mother and exchanges the oxygen and carbon dioxide. All the body parts of the baby will be developed as usually supplying the nutrients and other essential growth factors.

The experiments were made on this device with some animals like lamb and were placed in the fluid for nearly 28 days and were as healthy as the normal born lamb. As the evidences shows, this device is used to control the premature baby deaths.

ROBOTIC DRILL FOR CRANIAL SURGERY

A latest robotic drill performs a kind of complicated cranial surgery fifty times more rapidly than ordinary procedures has been developed by scientists together with one among Indian origin. The Mechanized drill is similar to  automobile elements that provide quick, clean and safe cuts, reducing the time the wound is opened and also the patient sedation time

This can reduces the occurrence of infection, human faults, and surgical expenses. To perform complicated surgeries, particularly cranial surgeries, surgeons generally use hand drills to form labyrinthine openings, which takes many hours to complete. The mechanized drill reduces the time for bone removal from 3 hours to 2.5 minutes.

First, the patient is imaged employing a CT scan to collect bone information and determine the precise location of sensitive structures, like nerves and major veins and arteries that has got to be avoided. Surgeons use this statistics to monitor the cutting path of the drill. The software allows the surgeon to select the optimum path from purpose A to purpose B as in the Google maps. It also allows the surgeon to programme safety barriers along the cutting path within one millimeter of sensitive structures

The translabyrinthine surgery is performed thousands of times a year in order to remove benign tumors that form in the region of the auditory nerves. This surgery is very complicated such that the cutting path should avoid numerous sensitive features, including facial nerves and the venous sinus (a large vein that drains blood from the brain). Risk factor of this surgery is loss of facial movement. In order to avoid this risk factor the mechanized drill consists an automatic emergency shut-off switch to avoid contact with the facial nerve. If the mechanized drill gets too close to the facial nerve then the drill automatically turns off.