ANTIBIOTICS are used to treat or prevent some types of bacterial infection. They work by killing bacteria or preventing them from reproducing and spreading. Antibiotics aren’t effective against viral infections such as the common cold, flu, most coughs and sore throats.

Antibiotics are used to treat bacterial infections that

  • Are unlikely to clear up without antibiotics
  • Could infect others unless treated
  • Could take too long to clear without treatment
  • Carry a risk of more serious complications

There are hundreds of different types of antibiotics, but most of them can be broadly classified into six groups such as:

  • Penicillin’s
  • Cephalosporin’s
  • Aminoglycosides
  • Tetracycline’s
  • Macrolides
  • Fluoroquinolones

Both the NHS and health organizations across the world are trying to reduce the use of antibiotics as they cause many side effects to the patients. Over usage of antibiotics causes GONORRHEA. This untreatable gonorrhea not only causes pain but also has been linked to pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, tubal infertility, and neonatal eye infections, among other conditions. Therefore the antibiotics are to be taken in a limited dose to overcome the side effects caused by it.



ALOPECIA UNIVERSALIS is a condition which involves the complete loss of hair on the scalp of the body. This is an advanced form of ALOPECIA AREATA, which is also a condition that causes round patches of hair loss. Mystery is that the exact cause of this disease is still unknown but it is assumed that it is because of auto immune condition (the hair follicles of the person are attacked by immune system).

It may be caused by the environmental influences and genetic predisposition. A study on AU proved that approximately 20% of AU affected people have a family member with alopecia and finally gave statement that genetic are major responsible for the development of this disease. The symptoms of this disease includes burning sensation, itching, thyroid disorders, nail changes, anxiety, personality disorders, depression and paranoid disorders.

Earlier there was no medicine for this disease but now recently a new drug was put forward by the scientists which cure this disease. An FDA-approved drug called “TOFACITINIB CITRATE” is used to cure AU. This is successful in treating the individuals with psoriasis. Taking this drug 10mg daily shows some improvement and the individual had grown facial and scalp hair and after few days the dosage will be increased, by eight months there will be improved hair growth.